Duke University Scientific Writing Resource
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Dash vs. Hyphen

In lots of scientific writing—both published and unpublished—I see authors use hyphens where they intend to use an em-dash. Besides the regrettable effect of proclaiming that you do not understand the difference, more importantly, this mistake often leads to ambiguity and confusion. Here's a brief summary that will help you use hyphens correctly.

First, you have to be aware: there are 3 different symbols that all look like little lines: the hyphen (-), the en-dash (–), and the em-dash (—). They differ in width, and they mean different things! Many people use a hyphen for all 3; don't be one of those people. Here's what they mean:

    hyphen: used for compound words. Example: well-oiled
    en-dash: width of the letter n; used as the symbol for ranges. Example: 7%–9%
    em-dash: width of the letter m; a punctuation mark to set apart parenthetic statements. Example: The gene expression—after normalization, of course—showed enrichment in the...


I have yet to see a case where using a hyphen (-) in place of an en-dash (–) causes confusion, so I don't worry too much about en-dashes. The biggest source of confusion comes from using a hyphen (-) where you intend to use an em-dash—and this happens all the time! Imagine that last sentence with the em-dash replaced with a hyphen:
The biggest source of confusion comes from using a hyphen (-) where you intend to use an em-dash-and this happens all the time!
Big problem, no? If you don't want to go to the work to use an actual em-dash character, it's commonly accepted to use two hyphens together (--) to represent an em-dash.

If you do want to create the actual en- or em-dash glyphs, here's a table that shows you how to create them in different environments:
Hyphen N-dash M-dash
Word - --
HTML - – —
Tex - -- ---
Keys (windows) - Alt + 0150 (or, Alt + 2013) Alt + 0151 (or, Alt + 2014)
Keys (Mac) - option + - option + shift + -
Keys (Linux) - Ctrl + Shift + U, then 2013, Enter Ctrl + Shift + U, then 2014, Enter


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